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DISEASE ECOLOGY

At the time being where so many things can be happened in the world, because of so many factors that have some specifics influences to the others, then there are some difficulties in the way how to understand about  disease, for instance in the way to bearing in mind about how is the right way to stop the spread of  HIV/ AIDS,  what is HIV/AIDS really?  Why, when and so on.
In Indonesia right now, where there so many problems increasing, for example :
  1. the Problems of pollution
  2. the Problems of modernizationthe Problems of westernization (Secularisation)
  3. the Problems of life style changing
  4. the Problems of Post Modernisation (Postmo life style)
  5. the Problems of deforestation
  6. the Problems of Industrialisastion
  7. etc
On the other hand, the West people (not the West Government) tend to come to the East and tend to be the East people, for example :
–          the Case of Back to Nature
–          the Case of Expatriats who stay in Indonesia
–          the Case of American’s Gamelan Players
–          the Case of British’ Javanese’s Puppet show players
–          etc
The World Health Organization definition is saying that illness can be happened because of the role of :
–          Physical Environment
–          Biological Environment
–          Social Environment
–          Psychosocial Environment
Then based on the above problems, what can be done to solve all of the most difficult problems in the world ? Indeed that is a very complex problem among many other problems we have faced already.
Ecology according to Hawkins (1988) is the study of organisms in relation to one another and to their surroundings. Slamet (2004) reported that Human Ecology is a science that can be used to study the specific interaction between human life (physical, mental and social) and  environment ( physical environment, biological environment, social and psychosocial environment).
Mukono (2000) made an explanation that Ecology is come from the word of :
OIKOS (home) and LOGOS (Science or study). The word of Ecology at the first time was used by Ernest Haeckel ( Deutsch Biologist) at 1869, and according to him ecology means a science that study the interactive relationship between the creature and its surroundings. The role of Ecologist is to estimate or to predict what will happen in the real life based on the general knowledge. Indeed, that is the most difficult thing to do.
According to Slamet (2004), human ecology is an essential tool to when human being want to develop more about the way to manage the environment.As an example, the human ecology actually can be used in the fields of health aspects, for instances :
–          In the Preventive Medicine : by increasing the human immunity to dicrease the dysgenic factors (the bad things: human immunity)
–          In the Environmental Health : to increase the Eugenic factors (the Lucky factors) and to decrease the dysgenic factors
–          In the Clinical Medicine : by increasing the power of human being in order to decrease the dysgenic factors
For example :
–          The energy from the sunlight absorps by the leafs, and the the oxygen from the plant or leafs come to the air, and after that the oxygen inhalate by the rabbit, and then the unused energy from the rabbit (faeces, urine ) become decomposers that will be used by the plants, and it can also be eaten by human being.
–          
Ecosystem according to Hawkins (1988) is a system of interacting  organisms in a particular habitat
Ecoclimate = here climate as an ecological factor
According to Mukono (2000) the Concept of Health Ecology is as below :
The SUN à Atmosphere àNatural EnvironmentàDry field ——àRice

                     Soil                    Tropical Climate          Rice field           Starchy

                     Water                 Man Made Env.           Fish pond           Fish

                                                Tropical Rain Forest    Home garden     Vegetable

                                                                                     Livestock            Fruit

                                                                                                                 Meat

Technology—–à Community—à Labour Force Input —-àSecondary

Of Processing                                    (Technology of                 Forest

Consumption                                       Processing Production)

John Last (1998) made a General Principles of Control of Communicable Diseases as below :
Enhance host resistance :
Active immunization
Passive immunization
Improve nutrition
Interrupt transmission :
            Detect, treat cases
            Isolate cases (and quarantine contact when necessary)
            Chemoprophylaxis
            Vector control
            Environmental (Ecologic) measures
            Aseptic techniques
            Sanitation & pure water supplies
            Food Hygiene
Personal measures
            Personal Hygiene
            Protective barriers (i.e.condoms to protect against STDs)
            Avoid situations likely to transmit infection
Inactivating the infectious agent
            Physical measures (heat,cold, radiation)
            Chemical measures (Chlorination, disinfection)
Modes of Transmission of Infection
Person to person spread
            Direct
                        STDs
                        Other

            Indirect
                        Droplet spread
                        Fomites (Vomitus?)
                        Airborne dessicated droplets
Common vehicle spread
            Water
            Food & Milk
            Air
            Biologic products (blood, serum,etc)
Vectorborne
            Biologic life cycle transfer
            Passenger transfer
Zoonoses
Others (Soil saprophytes,etc)
John Last (1998) conclusion is we have made great progress in control measures during the 20th century, but we have not eliminated threats to health and long life from infectious pathogens. I doubt if we ever will, because there are so many more varieties of microorganisms than there are humans.Our best hope is to regard microorganisms in THEIR ECOLOGIC PERSPECTIVE and to work with, rather than against, the ecosystems that include humans and pathogenic organisms.
Reference:
  1. Hawkins, Joyce M 1988.THE OXFORD REFERENCE DICTIONARY, Guild Publishing, London, United Kingdom
  2. Slamet, Juli Soemirat 2004.KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.
  3. Mukono, H.J 2000.PRINSIP DASAR KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN, Airlangga University Press, Surabaya.
  4. Last,John 1998.PUBLIC HEALTH AND HUMAN ECOLOGY, Second Edition, Appleton & Lange, USA.
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