MINE WITHOUT CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Any mining activity will almost certainly have an impact on the environment, both are positive or negative. The positive impact of mining activities, among others, increasing the chance employment, improve the economy of other sectors and sub sectors in the vicinity, and increase income state and local governments in the form of taxes, levies or royalties. Nevertheless, the mining activity that is not insightful or not to consider the balance and the carrying capacity of the environment and not properly managed can have negative impacts on the environment. The negative impact is between
Another occurrence of ground motion that can take its toll both property and lives, the loss of local infiltration of water in hilly areas, the destruction of landscapes, river siltation into the impact can be to downstream, increasing the intensity of erosion in hilly areas, the streets through which the vehicle mine the carrier material becomes damaged, disrupting groundwater conditions, and occurrence of pools of large water-filled, especially when digging in the plain area, as well as affecting social life population around the mine site. Therefore, to avoid negative impacts, then the environmentally sound management of mining which absolutely must be done.
Mining activities can be interpreted as a phase of activity that begins with the investigation Generally, exploration, feasibility studies, construction, mining (including when there are processing and refining), transportation / sale and ending with post-mining land rehabilitation. management of mining is an effort made both technical and non technical so that the mining activities not cause problems, both to the mining activity itself or against the environment. Management of mining is often only done at the time of mining only. This can understandable, because at this stage considered the most widely or often cause problems when not managed properly. Perception is thus less precise. management of mining should be done since the early to late stages as mentioned above. Even to anticipate occurrence of the problem, then before a deposit of minerals mined, the study needs to be done beforehand whether the deposit is viable to be mined in many other aspects. Thus the outline the management of mining needs to be done in 3 (three) kinds of phases of activity, namely Initial activities of the determination of the feasibility of mining, during mining activities in the second (exploitation), and the activities of third / last one at the time of post-mining land reclamation.
As has been explained above, the mineral deposits should be exploited to improve economy and regional and national income for the prosperity of the people. However, the deposit mine the material contained in a region can not simply be mined, but it should be assessed prior first whether the deposit is viable to mine. This aims to avoid the impact negative environmental impacts are not expected to conflict of interest or land use which is often protracted in the solution.To determine the feasibility of mining a mineral deposit, first needs to be done studies covering various aspects in the vicinity and to consider legislation that apply cross-cutting nature.Aspects that need to be assessed are:• Aspects of land use on and in a location of mineral deposits: in order harmonization of space utilization, before the mine material proposed to be mined, it is necessary note first allotment of land where the mineral is located. When located Land use is based on legislation or functions may not be for the cultivation area, then the material may not be mine / do not deserve to be mined.• Aspects of geology: the geological aspects of the study carried out after completion of mining exploration activities in which type, distribution, quantity and quality is known. Geological aspects of the study are :- TopographyThe study was gain insight about the location or the location of mineral deposits. Whether contained in the plain, undulating hills or ramps (slope between 0 degrees and 17 degrees), steep (slope between 17 degrees and 36 degrees) or very steep (slope> 36 degrees). Slopes are very steep and steep mining techniques will make, especially for open pit system (open-pit mining).- Land coverThe thickness of soil covering the deposit of minerals is very variable, thin (several centimeters), moderate (a few cm to 1 m) and thick (greater than 1 m). Knowing the thickness of cover soil This is important because it involves mining engineering problems, especially regarding the placement ground cover.- Physical and engineering properties of soil / rockStudy the physical properties of soil / rock include color, texture, and condition of rock is solid, hollow, hard or gaps. Engineering properties include compressive strength / rock carrying capacity, resilience decays, the cohesion, and the magnitude of the soil shear angle. Engineering properties of soil / rock can be used to analyze the design of mine, especially the amount of the mine slope angles in relation to slope stability.- HydrogeologicalIt is important from hydrogeological studies is whether the mineral deposit is located in the area affixes or ground water near the springs that are important. Also keep in mind the condition of water land surrounding the mine if the material contained in the flow of the river which is one one natural resource that serves a multipurpose.- Geological disasterThe review was to determine whether the location of mineral deposits are located on or near the area prone to soil movement, track earthquakes, volcanic hazard area, flood prone areas, areas easily eroded, and so on.- Protected areas of geologicalThis study to see whether the location of mineral deposits are located in Protected Areas Geology or not. Geology Protected Area is an area that has the features / phenomena kegeologian unique, rare and distinctive as a result of past geologic processes and or who is running that should not be tampered with or disturbed, so that should be preserved, primarily for the benefit of science and tourism. Phenomena such kegeologian among other unique rocks and fossils, the uniqueness of the landscape (eg calderas, craters, volcanic dunes, sand dunes, dome, and the karst landscape), and unique geological processes (Eg mud-volcano and natural fire source).• Aspects Sosekbud: This study among others, include the number and location of human settlements around the site mining, customs and heritage / cultural sites (including sacred areas). In addition, to avoiding or minimizing the negative environmental impact due to mining activities, then the things that need further attention are :1. Mining sites as much as possible does not lie in or on the aquifer recharge area that is not would interfere with the preservation of ground water in the surrounding area.2. Mining sites should be located some distance from residential areas so that noise or dust arising from mining activities will not disturb residents.3. Mining sites are not adjacent to the springs is important so it will not interfere with the quality and quantity of water from the springs, also to avoid the loss of springs.4. Mining sites as much as possible does not lie in the upper watershed (especially mine rock) to prevent siltation of the river which could impact up to regions which ultimately can lead to downstream flooding due to silting of the river. It should be emphasized especially in big cities where many rivers flowing and empties into the large urban areas them.5. Mining sites are not located in protected areas (nature reserves, national parks, etc..).6. Mining sites should be close to consumers to avoid transport costs high that the selling price of the material not to be expensive.7. Mining sites are not located close to building critical infrastructure, such as bridges and high voltage electrical tower. Also as far as possible the location is not close to the school building so it will not interfere with the process of learning and teaching.The results of the various aspects of these studies, combined with aspects of the legislation, then in analysis to determine the feasibility of mining a mineral deposit. The results of the feasibility analysis produces 2 (two) categories, namely viable mines and mine is not feasible. Worthy of mine that does not mean mined offhand, but must follow the rules that apply to the impact of mining negative impact on the environment as a result of mining activities can be avoided or suppressed as small as possible. In addition, conflict / overlap interests of land use can also be avoided.
Once a mineral deposit to be mined as feasible, then the next minerals will be mined (exploited). In this exploitation also requires a management environmentally sound. This is closely related to mining techniques to be used, including manufacture and placement of the mine infrastructure. In a mining activity usually consists of several stages, namely the preparation stage, the stage exploitation and the last, which is an integral part, is the stage of reclamation / rehabilitation of land post-mining.a. Preparation PhasePreparation phase is usually preceded by the transport activities of the various types of mining equipment, including construction materials for the manufacture of office, warehouse, housing (if any) and facilities other mines, land clearing (land-clearing), and the next is making / opening of the road the mine. In the case of transport of mining equipment and building materials, which need attention is the path to be traversed. Necessary to calculate how many meters wide roads, whether through the bridge (What condition), whether through settlement, how the frequency and type of traffic passing and tonnage trucks, and so on. These things need to be considered carefully in order no negative environmental impacts occur along the road to be traversed, both to human and physical nature itself. Some examples of negative impacts that can be caused by the activitiesThis transport if not properly managed, among others, is the way to be broken (lots of holes, muddy in the rainy season), traffic accidents (because the road is too narrow, or condition of the bridge less eligible), scattered dust which can cause health problems (because of the way the form of land and passed a vehicle in the dry season), and disturbances of noise.In the land clearing activities to consider the slope and slope stability, erosion hazard and sedimentation (from felling the trees, especially during the rainy season), and avoid placement results clearing of existing natural drainage systems. Similarly, at the time of making the mine road. Location of making the mine facilities, such as offices, warehouses, and housing need to pay attention conditions soil / rock and the slope of the slope. Wherever possible avoid steep sloping sites and the possibility of landslide prone. If required making settling pond, put on the location of the properties impermeable rock, such as clay stone, and not on a lot of muscular rock-sturdy. This is to avoid leakage. If the condition of the rock is not possible, then the pool of depositioncan be made of concrete, although requiring an additional fee.b. Exploitation PhaseActivities undertaken at this stage the main form of mining / quarrying of minerals with keterdapatan types and materials of different mines. As such techniques / procedures for mining different also. Minerals contained in the hills, although the same type, for example sand mining techniques will be different with a deposit of sand contained in the plain areas, especially contained in the course of the river. This paper will not discuss these various mining techniques, but will be discussed in general about what things are worth noting at this stage in the exploitation relation to the management of environmentally sound mining. Things that need attention are as follows :• The type, distribution and arrangement of bedding rock deposit located in the vicinity of mining, including overburden thickness.• Physical and engineering properties of soil / rock.• hydrogeological conditions (depth of water table and shallow / deep groundwater flow patterns, physical properties andchemistry of groundwater and surface water, location of springs and debits the amount, location and flow patterns The following designation, the natural drainage system).• Topography / slope.• Disaster geology (vulnerability to ground motion, the danger of volcanic eruptions, flood, earthquake).• The content of unsus-unsusr minerals contained in rocks that are all around the deposit of materials mines, such as pyrite By knowing and then take into account all these data, the technique can be determined mining appropriate, so that the negative environmental impact caused by mining activities can avoided or suppressed as small as possible.c. Reclamation PhaseReclamation activities should not wait until all mining activity ended, especially in mining a vast land. Reclamation should be done as quickly as possible on the former land mining has been completed exploited, although mining activities as a whole not quite finished yet there are mineral deposits that have not been mined. The ultimate objective of reclamation is to improve the condition of land mined for safe, stable and not easily eroded so that it can be recovered. Things that need to be considered in environmental management at this stage of reclamation is as follows :• reclamation plan should be prepared prior to the implementation of the mining• The area reclaimed mining area equal to• Moving and placing the top soil at a particular place and set in such a way as to revegetation purposes• Restore / repair the damaged natural drainage patterns• Eliminate / minimize the content (levels) of toxic materials (if any) up to a safe level before being discharged into a disposal site• Restore the land as before or in accordance with the intended use• Minimize erosion during and after the reclamation process• Move all equipment that has no further use to the place that is considered safe• Surfaces should digemburkan solid ground, or planted with pioneer plants whose roots able to penetrate hard ground• The type of plant that will be used for revegetation must conform with the rehabilitation plan (can be first consult with relevant agencies)• Prevent the entry of harmful pests and weeds• Monitor and manage the reclamation area in accordance with the conditions expected. In some cases, ex-mining land should not be entirely direvegetasi, but can utilized for other purposes, such as a pool of water supplies, golf courses, housing, and so if it is considered more useful or appropriate to the spatial plan. Therefore, before reclamation plan, you should first consult with the local government, land owners or other related institutions.
Mining activities, especially those using open pit system (open-pit mining or side-hill quarry) will certainly change the shape of the landscape. But that does not mean destroying the environment, because it is only temporary and at the end of the mining area will be rehabilitated back. This could occur if mining activities are designed and managed properly. Mining activities often give the impression is always damaging to the environment, it is because mining activity is not managed well and did not pay attention and resources keseimbanagan capacity of the environment. A mining activities are managed well or sound environment will produce great benefits and will not damage the physical environment, threatening occupational safety and health annoying. Even not impossible that an ex-mining land the reclaimed land properly will make it more useful than before the mining activities.