AQUACULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL ,TOXICOLOGICAL, AND HEALTH ISSUES
Since the1960s,aqua culture production have in creased dramatically due to much improved conditions such as water quality, disease control, nutritionally complete feeds, and the development of improved stocks through selective breeding, hybridization, and the application of molecular genetics technology (Stickney, 1994). Globally, farmed fish production more than doubled from1987 to1997 atarate of 9% peryear (Englehaupt, 2007) and aqua cultureis becoming a major industry that provides approximately 43% of sea food to the consumers (FAO, 2006, 2007a). China remains the largest producer with reported fisheries production of 47.5 milliont on sin 2004 providing an estimated domestic food supply of 28.4 kg percapita as well as production forex port and non food purposes, followed by Indiaand the Philippines (FAO, 2006).
The United States (US) ranks third in the world in consumption of sea food and eleventhin the world in aqua culture production, there fore the US has histori cally had torely on high levels of sea food imports (Goldbergetal., 2001).
It may appear that aqua culture is highly beneficial and has no draw backs but that is far fromaccurate.The aqua culture industry, likeother industries, has its share of occupational hazards, safety concerns, and risks to the individual health of the worker. There also exist several deleterious effects on the environment from aqua culture. Farmed fish, although presumablys afer from contamination than wild fish, have, infact, higher body burden of certain toxic chemicals that may present health concerns to unsuspecting consumers. On the other hand, a major benefit of farmed fish is that they provide ago odandlow cost source of polyun saturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) which can enhance cardiovascular health in humans.
Regulations and international over sight for the aqua culture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies attempting to regulate aqua culture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety.These practices differ from country to country and sometimes between states and territories with in a country. How ever, there are on going efforts to standard izepractices across borders and harmonize international regulations. The concernsand recommendations for improving the aqua culturei ndustryare of constant interest. From our literature search in PubMed, were cognized that there are only a handful of review papers on the general topic during the last two years. The majority of them, however, focused on infection and microbiological problems. Therefore,an updated review of environmental, toxicological and health concerns of aqua culture is needed.Our current review has also included recent publications on the topic.